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Osmanli Devleti






The Prophet ﷺ is reported to have said, ‘Verily you shall conquer Constantinople. What a wonderful leader he will be, and what a wonderful army will that army be!’ [Musnad Ahmad, Al Hakim, al Jami’ al Saghir]


Constantinople, as it was then known, was capital of the Byzantine Empire. It was surrounded by many Muslim states.


Sultan Mehmet II, also known as Mehmet the Conqueror, led an army and conquered Istanbul in 1453.


He had planned to conquer Istanbul when he was just a prince.


Mehmet II gave orders to prepare for a siege of Edirne, a northwestern province of present-day Turkey which shares a land border with Greece.


In 1452, Zaganos Pasha, a formidable Ottoman commander, fortified the Anatolian Fortress and finished building the Rumanian Fortress, both overlooking the Bosphorus Strait. The idea was to block military assistance to the Byzantine Empire in Istanbul through the Black Sea.
Urban, a Hungarian cannon caster, prepared cannonballs that would be fired from the Rumelian Fortress.


The cannonballs submerged the ship of a trespasser, Venetian Antonio Rizzo in the Bosphorus.


This success made it crucial to build larger cannonballs to demolish the walls of Istanbul. So, cannonballs weighing 600 kg (1,322.77 pounds) with a diameter of 62.6 cm (2.03 feet) were casted in Edirne.


After the cannonballs were brought to Istanbul and the Rumelian Army arrived, Mehmet II demanded that Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI should leave the city and declared war.


– First attack


The first attack was carried out on April 18, 1453, but it failed causing losses to the Ottoman army.


Moreover, defenders of the city received military assistance from three Genoese and one Byzantine ship, which broke the Ottoman blockade in the Bosphorus on April 20.


Aksemseddin, a famous scientist of the era who supported the Sultan in those difficult days, wrote a letter to the Sultan saying the siege must go on. This is the only document of the incident which has been preserved to this day.


– Moving ships on ground


A second plan was put in place. Some 60 ships were moved toward the Golden Horn on a road through a small cove with the help of men and oxens.


The ships reached the Golden Horn on April 22 shocking the Byzantine army which was hopeful of assistance from Genoese ships.


Six days later, Venetian Admiral Giocomo Coco failed to destroy Ottoman ships and was buried in the Golden Horn waters with his ship.


On May 6, the Ottoman army shifted its focus on the city walls between Topkapi and Edirnekapi, which had been weakened due to cannonballs.


– Rumors cause despair


Meanwhile, the Hungarian ambassador came to the Ottoman army and threatened that a Crusader army would set sail if the siege was not called off. Byzantinian men also sneaked into the Ottoman army spreading rumors that help was coming for the enemy from the Balkan side.


The nearly 50-day siege had created unrest in the Ottoman army.


Sultan Mehmet II ordered Zaganos Pasha to carry out the final attack on May 29.
Constantine XI, on the other hand, was trying to keep his realm in high spirits by organizing religious rite one after the other.


– Three-wave attack


During the massive three-wave attack of the Ottomans at sunrise, Giovanni Giustiniani-Lungo, a Genoese soldier who was leading the defense was injured.


Topkapi city walls and its high tower were destroyed by artillery fire and burning gunpowder.
Constantine XI along with his comrades was killed by Ottoman soldiers.
Mehmet II entered the city victorious and went to the dome of Hagia Sophia to get a view of Istanbul.


He then ended the siege.


– New Age begins


Istanbul was declared the new capital of Ottoman Empire.


With the conquest of Istanbul, the 1058-year Byzantine Empire dissipated, the Middle Age ended and the New Age began.


Mehmet II initiated the classical period of Ottoman Empire.


Written By: Murat Mert


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The year is 1326 and Osman Gazi has died from natural causes during the siege of Bursa shortly after Osman’s that the city of Bursa was taken by his oldest son Orhan Ghazi. Orhan Ghazi and his stepbrother Aladeen Pasha would talk about the line of succession to the Beylic that they both inherited. The Step Brothers came to conclusion that Ottoman Beylic shouldn’t be split between them Aladeen relines that Orhan was natural born warrior whereas he was more of a man of learning and education didn’t fit the mould of a military commander. He wanted to continue to administrate the Beylic while his more charismatic brother Orhan went on military campaigns so Orhan Gazi became the new Sultan rewarding his stepbrother’s loyalty to him and to the state he made a Aledeen Pasha the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, an office which would be occupied by various men until 1922.


Aledeen Pasha

Aledeen Pasha


Orhan Ghazi would start his dream by moving the Ottoman capital to Bursa rewarding the Byzantine commander for surrendering the city to him by giving him and his sons key positions in the ottoman army to serve him. This was a common practice also seen when Osman Gazi gave the former Byzantine governor Kosemihal major positions in the Ottoman administration after he surrendered his City to Osman Gazi. The new capital Bursa was transformed by many building projects paid by Aladeen Pasha which saw many mercantile establishments bazaars open in the city which turned the city into a major trade centre in the region.The transformation of Bursa indicates a turning point for Ottoman Turks which sees them go from the nomadic hurts people into a settled urban society.


By the year 1328 the Byzantine civil war concluded with the overthrowing of Emperor Andronikos II along with the serbian allies by his grandson Andronikos III who was backed up by the Bulgarians. Also by that time Orhan had started the siege of Nicaea was the second biggest city in the Byzantine Empire only second to their capital of Constantinople. Andronikos III decided to relieve the important besieged city of Nicaea and hope to restore the Byzantine frontier to a stable position. Andronikos III led an army of about four thousand men which was greatest he could muster at the time to the besieged city. An 8,000 strong Ottoman army led by Orhan Ghazi would strike this Byzantine force floors during the Battle of Pelekanon. The battle would be a Ottoman victory which would see Andronikos III being wounded during battle, this would be the last time the Byzantine’s would attempt to try to regain land in Anatolia the huge city of Nicaea would fall to the ottomans by 1331 and in 1333 Orhan and his son Suleyman Pasha would start the siege in Nicomedia which would fall in 1337.


While Orhan Gazi and his armies where military campaigning against the Byzantines Aladeen Pasha was administrating the Empire at the capital of Bursa. He introduced the monetary system into the state which would see the first coining of ottoman coins under the name of Orhan. Aladeen would also reorganized the Ottoman army into a standing army. Aledeen Pasha formed the new army by forming cores the paid infantry which was to be kept in constant readiness for military service these troops were called the Yaya infantry. This army was highly organized unlike their previous Ghazi Army’s. Aladeen Pasha’s clothing reforms were also very important to the multi-ethnic Beylic, different attires were chosen for different ethnicities which made it easier to identify people’s backgrounds. The Ottoman Beylic was a diverse state which saw many Greeks Turks Armenians and Jews live together. This reform was not to single a community but to give ethnic groups identity in which the state could easily interact with those people. The people that lived under the Ottoman Beylic had a close relationship to their central government unlike many feudal kingdoms.


Aladeen Pasha’s reforms ensured the legitimacy of the new Ottoman government on the lands inwhich that ruled and that would survive from outside threats while at the same time making it easier to conquer more land and interact with the conquered people.


Aladeen Pasha the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman state will pass away in Bursa in 1331 leaving behind stable government for his warrior stepbrother Orhan Ghazi to manage.


By 1345 the Karasids Beylic to the west was in turmoil Yashi Han the leader of the Karasa Balak had died and his two sons would start a civil war in order to become the next Bey. Orhan Gazi saw an opportunity to gain further power in the region by participating in civil war, this pretext for war was that he was trying to establish peace in the Karasids Beylic. By the end of the year one of the brothers in a rebellion were killed in battle and the other one was captured by Orhan Gazi. The rich Beylic of Karasids and its huge Navy was taken over by the Ottoman Beylic. The Ottomans were eyeing the shores of Europe across the Dardanelles straits planning their next move.


Anatolia at 1300s

Anatolia at 1300s


After the battle Pelican in 1329 the ottomans and the Byzantines entered a period of threatening contact due to both sides not wanting to continue their three-decade war with each other.


The Byzantine state was crumbling at a very fast rate and they were also defeated by the Bulgarians to the Battle of Rooster Castro and 1332 which almost kicked out the Byzantines from the region of Thrace. Things went worse in 1341 when Andronikos iii died this would start another round of civil wars for the Byzantines. Andronikos son John  V was only nine years old when his father died, so Andronikos Chief Minister John VI vied for power left by the power vacuum after the death of Andronikos and became the new emperor. John VI would win the Civil War and become the senior Emperor in Regent for ten years for the junior emperor John v until he was old enough to rule by himself Serbian and Bulgaria took big chunks of land from Byzantines during the Civil War. The Byzantines desperately needed a new ally to protect them from Serbia and Bulgaria so John the IV turned to Orhan Ghazi for help.


John VI would ally himself with Orhan Gazi by planning a royal marriage between his daughter Theodora and Orhan to declare their friendship to one another. In 1346 Orhan Gazi would marry Theodora in Constantinople in the following year the couple would have a sudden name Shahzade Halil. This alliance however failed to prevent the Byzantines from further decline, this was evident during the Byzantine Genoese war of 1348 to 1349 where the Byzantines failed to prevent Genoa from occupying the Golden Horn right next to Constantinople due to tariff disputes. To show off their presence in Constantinople the Genoese built the Galata Tower which became the tallest building in the city. The ottomans wouldn’t join this war with the Byzantines due to the Byzantines allying themselves with Venice. The Venetians and the Ottomans were hostile to one another due to Orhan’s raiding parties against relationships and Dardanelles this meant that Orhan would not participate during this war. After years of unrest and John VI losing his popularity with the people and the government the Byzantines were yet again in a civil war. In 352 John the V he was twenty years old by this time had revolted against John VI to become the sole ruler of the Empire which he inherited from his father. Seeing a way to gain further influence with the young Emperor and gain even more land Serbia Genoa and even Venice sided with John the fifth.


Hearing about John the V’s revolt against him John the VI made his son Matthew Emperor and requested help from Orhan Gazi. Orhan Gazi also seen an opportunity to gain land in Europe decided to help his father-in-law John VI and sent over ten thousand of his best warriors over the Bosporus to stop John V revolt. The battle of DemoTika saw the joint forces of Orhan Ghazi and John VI wipe out the forces of John V and his Serbian allies, this battle would be the first battled the Ottomans would fight on European soil and resulted in a victory for Orhan Ghazi. It was at this point Orhan Gazi was becoming a popular figure among Turkish Beylics back in Anatolia.


Hearing about John the V’s revolt against him John the VI made his son Matthew Emperor and requested help from Orhan Gazi. Orhan Gazi also seen an opportunity to gain land in Europe decided to help his father-in-law John VI and sent over ten thousand of his best warriors over the Bosporus to stop John V revolt. The battle of DemoTika saw the joint forces of Orhan Ghazi and John VI wipe out the forces of John V and his Serbian allies, this battle would be the first battled the Ottomans would fight on European soil and resulted in a victory for Orhan Ghazi. It was at this point Orhan Gazi was becoming a popular figure among Turkish Beylics back in Anatolia.


Orhan at the age of 80 retired from public life and made his second eldest son Murad run the government. Orhan would die from natural causes in Bursa and 1362 after 36 years of ruling the Ottoman Beylic it was the first time during Orhan’s spring that the administration military and legislation of the Empire were structured. Osman Gazi had transformed his small Kayi tribe to great principality in Anatolia while his son Orhan Ghazi began the process of turning the principality into a state.

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Osmanli Devleti





Before going to sleep, Osman performed Salat and offered the following Dua (prayer) to Allah, before retiring for the night:


Oh, my Rabb!


If my efforts can cause the birth of righteousness, enlighten my night and my day!


May the glow of Dîn-i mübin-i İslâm (the True Religion of Islam) be clearly granted to always stand up for the Right.


May all the enemies of the faith perish alive under the ground! May the armies of unbelievers be ravaged by my strength!


May my sword be a shining beacon on the way of religion, and a guide to those who fight on the path of the Truth.


May I be granted to carry a clean, an unblemished name and to be victorious.
Grant me such an end that I may be able to reach Your Divine Grace.


Oh, my Almighty Lord, the Most Benevolent, the Most Generous.


Guide me so that I may attain your approval!


May the word of our Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (SAW) be my guide.


Bestow upon me the blessings and pleasure of the Holy Struggle.




Written By: Murat Mert


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Osmanli Devleti





The first encounters can be traced back to the early sixteenth century when the Portuguese dominated maritime trade across the Indian Ocean. The Portuguese naval power threatened not only the spice trade between the Sultanate of Aceh (located in modern-day Sumatra) and the rest of the world, but also the safety of the pilgrimage routes of Acehnese Muslims on their way to Mecca. In 1538, the Sultan of Aceh, Alauddin Riayat, approached the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, who also held the title of caliph, asking for help against the Portuguese threat. He received not only weapons and ammunition from the caliph, but also military instructors, housing and construction specialists, and other experts. It was the beginning of a long period of military cooperation between the Ottoman Empire and the sultanate. Closer diplomatic relations soon followed, culminating in the first exchange of ambassadors in 1547.


After the sixteenth century, relations between the Ottoman Empire and Aceh entered a period of stagnation, mainly due to the fact that the Ottoman Empire was weakening and naval expeditions were less justifiable. With the loss of Ottoman influence in Yemen in the mid-seventeenth century and the consequent closure of ports, the sultan’s armada left the waters of the Indian Ocean for good. However, Turkish influence in Sumatra and to some extent the other islands of the archipelago remained intact. The Sultanate of Aceh became a regional power thanks to the military it built on the Turkish model.


The nineteenth century in Southeast Asia was marked by the colonialist ventures of Western powers, led by Britain and the Netherlands. Several sultanates such as Aceh and Riau saw Ottoman protection as a better alternative to dominion by a Christian power.


The first Ottoman diplomatic mission in Southeast Asia was in 1864 in Singapore, and another Ottoman consulate opened in Batavia (modern-day Jakarta) in 1883. These missions were part of Ottoman efforts to promote an Islamic union. While the Dutch administration did not initially object to the opening of the Batavia office, they became increasingly concerned about its activities and took measures to limit Ottoman influence on the Muslim population. To a great extent, they succeeded. When the Ottoman sultan proclaimed a “holy war” at the onset of the First World War and called on Muslims to join the fight, the Dutch ambassador in Istanbul protested by claiming that the Netherlands remained neutral and therefore the holy war must not require the mobilization of Indonesian Muslims. The government of the Ottoman Empire responded by revising the text of the holy war proclamation to exclude Indonesian Muslims.


Written By: Murat Mert


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