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Osmanli Devleti

Understanding Sultan AbdulHamid Han



Remembering with Respect and Understanding Sultan AbdulHamid Han

For many years we have looked at our own history through the window of others. For example, during the Sarıkamıs operation, ninety thousand soldiers froze to death without firing a single gun, we said.

However, this figure was the propaganda discourse of the Russians. So it was a lie. Even the number of our soldiers who participated in the operation was not that much. If our soldier didn’t fire a gun in Sarıkamıs, how could the loss of the Russians be thirty-two thousand?

This was also the case of Sultan AbdulHamid Han. For many years he was looked at from the eyes of his enemies and the west. This is unfortunately made as an official discourse.

Now the seal is in the hands of those who call Sultan Abdülhamid Han as “Great Han” We have the proverb: Truth surely wins. Lie cannot live long.

Sultan AbdulHamid Han’s life is really touching. His priority was to ensure the unity and solidarity of the nation as the Sultan; and of the ummah as the Caliph.

It was to try to prevent the colonialists from conquering Islamic countries. It was to prevent British, French and Russian expansionism. For thirty-three years he struggled for this. (Inspired by Assoc. Prof. İbrahim Kalın’s book, Öteki ve Ötesi.)

The decree of Allah. AbdulHamid desperately had to watch the loss of Rumelia during the Balkan War; the fall of our big cities such as Baghdad and Jerusalem during the Jihan War. Perhaps it can be a consolation: On February 10, 1918, he deliberately rested because of knowing that Mosul, Damascus and Aleppo was ours.. but it was not. If we think about that Sultan Reşad passed away in the same year (3 July), we can understand his deep sorrow in the face of the losses. The state was dismembered, the nation fell apart, and the ummah was in captivity of the imperialists.


Sultan AbdulHamid Han ruled our country for thirty-three years under harsh conditions and between tough enemies. Along with him, the era of the ‘Great Sultan’ ended.

Despite all the black propaganda, his effect and memory have lived up to the present day. It is true that a great deal of effort has been made to erase him from national memory.

Even the settlements having the name of Hamidiye got their share of this anger. Hamidiye was changed as Mesudiye.

I am a person who likes to visit the homeland rather than going outside. The Ottoman Empire invested heavily in European lands. We know that even Bolu, right next to Istanbul, was considered a place of exile. This is why great works in many towns of Anatolia belongs to Seljuk and the Principality period. Sultan AbdulHamid Han saw the future and attempted to revive the territory of Anatolia. He almost formed the defense line. Yes, foresight. I’ve seen traces of this effort everywhere I go. From Kastamonu to Sivas and Söğüt.

Today, many buildings used as schools, government buildings, museums, hospitals is all his works. He did all this despite the heavy debt burden. This service of his alone is enough to remember him wwith utmost respect.

AbdulHamid came to the throne during difficult years. Those who mistook the security policy he followed as restrictions and pressures on freedoms soon experienced what the real captivity itself was, and they repented. The life of our national poet is evident as a painful document.

We can easily say that Sultan AbdulHamid’s contribution to our country is much more than that of many prime ministers and presidents. Comparison cannot be made.


February 10 was the 100th anniversary of Sultan AbdulHamid Han. An important event was held at the Yıldız Palace with the participation of our President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan: Understanding Sultan AbdulHamid.

Carefully prepared speeches, albums and exhibition. The art director of the event was Harun Tan. First we visited the exhibition. There were AbdulHamid`s special items such as his seal, amber rosary, wallet, teacup, walking stick, box, carpentery tools, writing set, envelope opener.

Some of the edicts drew our attention. Here is one of them: “In the examination it was understood that Lady Ayse who worked for two years in Thessaloniki as a soldier with the name of Aydınlı Köse Mehmed was a girl. She was brought to Istanbul. It was decided to pay her 300 liras per month by state treasury and 2000 liras as Padishah’s gift. ”

What impressed me the most was the maps of Palestine and Jerusalem and Kubbetü’s Sahara model, which were among the special belongings of Sultan AbdulHamid. As I remembered that he died two months after Jerusalems fall, this saddened me.

We know of the Sultan’s deep interest in books and photographs. His passion for learning and the importance given to education as a result. The exhibition successfully reflected this characteristic of AbdulHamid.

Our nation cannot do without flags. I was excited to see the flags of Ertuğrul Süvari Regiment and the 53rd Hamidiye Regiment. Sultan AbdulHamid’s great interest in these regiments is obvious.

In his speech, President Erdoğan said “Although the form of governance has changed, the essence and spirit of our nation has remained the same ” We are understanding this truth day by day.

There are people who want to start our country’s history from 1923. My grandfather was born in 1910. This small example itself shows that this is not possible.


Osmanli Devleti






1. Turkiye (…)

2. Bulgaria (545 years)

3. Greece (400 years)

4. Serbia (539 years)

5. Montenegro (539 years)

6. Bosnia and Herzegovina (539 years)

7. Croatia (539 years)

8. Macedonia (539 years)

9. Slovenia (250 years)

10. Romania (490 years)

11. Slovakia (20 years) Ottoman name: Uyvar

12. Hungary (160 years)

13. Moldova (490 years)

14. Ukraine (308 years)

15. Azerbaijan (25 years)

16. Georgia (400 years)

17. Armenia (20 years)

18. Southern Cyprus (293 years)

19. Northern Cyprus (293 years)

20. Southern lands of Russia (291 years)

21. Poland (25 years)-protection- Ottoman name: Lehistan

22. The southeast coast of Italy (20 years)

23. Albania (435 years)

24. Belarus (25 years) -protection-

25. Lithuania (25 years) -protection-

26. Latvia (25 years) -protection-

27. Kosovo (539 years)

28. Vojvodina (166 years) Ottoman name: Banat

29. Iraq (402 years)

30. Syria (402 years)

31. Israel (402 years)

32. Palestine (402 years)

33. Urdun (402 years)

34. Arabia (399 years)

35. Yemen (401 years)

36. Oman (400 years)

37. United Arab Emirates (400 years)

38. Qatar (400 years)

39. Bahrain (400 years)

40. Kuwait (381 years)

41. Western lands of Iran (30 years)

42. Lebanon (402 years)

43. Egypt (397 years)

44. Libya (394 years) Ottoman name: Tripoli

45. Tunisia (308 years )

46. ​​Algeria (313 years)

47. Sudan (397 years) Ottoman name: Nubia

48. Eritrea (350 years) Ottoman name: Habes

49. Djibouti (350 years)

50. Somalia (350 years) Ottoman name: Zeyla

51. Kenyan beaches (350 years)

52. Tanzanian beaches (250 years)

53. Northern regions of Chad (313 years) Ottoman name: Reşade

54. Part of Niger (300 years) Ottoman name: Kavar

55. The northern lands of Mozambique (150 years)

56. Morocco (50 years) -protection-

57. Western Sahara (50 years) -protection-

58. Mauritania (50 years) -patronage-

59. Mali (300 years) Ottoman name: Gat Kazası

60. Senegal (300 years)

61. Gambia (300 years)

62. Guinea-Bissau (300 years)

63. Guinea (300 years )

64. Part of Ethiopia (350 years) Ottoman name: Habeş (Abyssinian)


Although not officially located within the borders of the Ottoman Land borders, the places that are actually connected to the Caliphate are:


65. Muslims of India -Pakistan-

66. East India Muslims -Bangladesh-

67. Singapore

68. Malaysia

69. Indonesia

70. Turkestan Khanates

71. Nigeria

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Osmanli Devleti




Inegöl & its early Ottoman conqueror, Turgut Bey

(Translated from the official Inegöl City & Inegöl Chamber Of Commerce & Industry webpages & also some available translations of early chronicles)

If you want, you can skip sections on ancient history of İnegöl & go straight to early Ottoman history [that is being showcased ın Kuruluş Osman Season 3]

About the Name of İnegöl

The name of İnegöl in the Byzantine Period was Angelacoma. However, a source has not yet been found to confirm the claims that the name İnegöl is the distorted pronunciation of Angelacoma.

In the sources, it is seen that the name İnegöl was written in different forms. However, it is known that in most of the Ottoman sources it was written as Ayna-Göl or İne-Göl.

Evliya Çelebi, tells in his travel book that İnegöl is derived from Ezinegöl; He narrates that İnegöl took the name “Ezinegöl” because it was conquered on Friday, that is, Ezine day according to the parlance of those days, and that in time, the “Ez” part at the beginning was removed and it was called only İnegöl.

Archeological Surveys.

The history of İnegöl, according to the findings of the archeological surveys carried out in 1847 and 1942, dates back to 3000 BC. There are 6 mounds of archeological interest in İnegöl, namely Cumatepe, İnegöl 2, Şıbalı, Boğazköy, Palangatepe and Kurşunlu.

Today, the mound in the middle of the city, around the municipality headquarters, is called Cumatepe.

During excavations carried out by Bursa Archeology Museum in 1999 on the Cumatepe mound in the city center, mixed aged objects ranging from the Late Ottoman to the Chalcolithic Period were found.

Inegol in Antiquity

İnegöl has been invaded frequently due to its strategic location on military and commercial routes since ancient times.

It has been determined that Phrygians, Lydians, Persians and Macedonians successively ruled in İnegöl, which has a history of 5000 years. In 74 AD, it came under the rule of the Roman Empire.

And after the split of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, İnegöl passed under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine). It continued to be under Byzantine rule as a Tekfurluk center until the establishment of the Ottoman Principality by Osman Ghazi.

The Establishment of the Ottoman State and the Conquest of İnegöl

Osman Bey, who became the head of the principality in 1281 upon the death of his father Ertuğrul Bey, began the conquests against Byzantium soon after.

[Official Webpage from Inegol Chamber Of Commerce & Industry also adds that Osman Bey initially followed a policy of maintaining cordial, good working, relationships with the feudal landlords in Bursa, Bilecik and surroundings. Except with Ayah Nikola.]

In a battle with Ayah Nikola, the battle of Ermeni Beli in 1284, he and his men had to retreat after the martyrdom of Baykoca, the son of his brother, Savcı Bey.

Baykoca was the first martyr of the dynasty and his grave is in Hamzabey District of İnegöl.

Despite the retreat (and Bayhoca’s martyrdom), Ottoman history began with this first military operation.

The foundations of a state that would rule for six centuries were laid in the quadrangle of Söğüt, Bilecik, Domaniç and İnegöl in a short period of time.

After a while, Osman Bey raided Kulaca Castle near İnegöl and conquered the castle. The year of this conquest event was recorded as Hijri, 684, Gregorian, 1285 in the chronıcles of Aşıkpaşazade, and it was stated that this conquest was the first conquest of Osman Gazi.

[It is also mentioned in some early chronicles that deeply affected by Bayhoca’s martyrdom, Osman Bey never visited Angelacoma (İnegöl) and surroundings for approximately 14-15 years, while continuing with conquering other castles – the Karcahisar (İnönü Castle), Bilecik and Yarhisar Castles. A great many friends of feudal landlord of Angelacoma were thus erased from history]

Concerned about these developments, İnegöl tekfuru, Nikola, formed an alliance with other tekfurs to eliminate Osman Bey.

Osman Bey, becoming aware of this alliance, assigned the conquest of İnegöl to his comrade, Turgut Alp.

[in many early sources, Turgut Alp is referred to as Osman Bey’s dear friend & comrade – which make it reasonable to assume that age wise, he ‘might’ have been Osman Bey’s contemporary. This is the more widespread understanding & the reason why in the earlier TRT series on Osman Bey, he was shown as Osman Bey’s contemporary & friend]

With the siege plan implemented by Turgut Alp, İnegöl was finally conquered in 1299. After this conquest, Osman Bey handed over the administration of İnegöl and its surrounding villages to Turgut Alp.

[[According to early Ottoman sources, Turgut Alp was also with Osman Bey during the conquest of ‘Yarhisar’ and was then commissioned with the conquest of Inegol. In these sources, it is also mentioned that Turgut Alp first sieged the city and then Osman Bey came to his aid. It was also mentioned that during the conquest of Inegol, the city’s Tekfur, Aya Nikola, was executed and thereafter, Osman Bey assigned the administration of Inegöl & ıts surrounding villages to Turgut Alp]

The region where Inegol’s Kirles (Paşaören), Süle, Genci (Turgutalp Village), Gelene (Kayapınar) and Kıran Neighborhoods are located were called the Turguteli-Turgutlar district.

Turgut Alp, who also contributed significantly in the subsequent conquest of Bursa by Sultan Orhan, passed away in the village of Genci (today’s name Turgut alp Köy Mahallesi), where he had settled in his later years.

His mausoleum is on a large hill overlooking İnegöl in Turgut Alpköy Mahallesi, and a memorial ceremony is held around the mausoleum every year on the day of Hıdrellez.

The naming of a neighborhood, a village, an Anatolian High School and a mosque in İnegöl after Turgut Alp is an indication of the place this highly successful early Ottoman commander holds in the collective memory of generations that came after him.


Turguts Burial Place

Written By Neelofer Siddiqui

Ottoman Empire in Indonesia

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The year is 1326 and Osman Gazi has died from natural causes during the siege of Bursa shortly after Osman’s that the city of Bursa was taken by his oldest son Orhan Ghazi. Orhan Ghazi and his stepbrother Aladeen Pasha would talk about the line of succession to the Beylic that they both inherited. The Step Brothers came to conclusion that Ottoman Beylic shouldn’t be split between them Aladeen relines that Orhan was natural born warrior whereas he was more of a man of learning and education didn’t fit the mould of a military commander. He wanted to continue to administrate the Beylic while his more charismatic brother Orhan went on military campaigns so Orhan Gazi became the new Sultan rewarding his stepbrother’s loyalty to him and to the state he made a Aledeen Pasha the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, an office which would be occupied by various men until 1922.


Aledeen Pasha

Aledeen Pasha


Orhan Ghazi would start his dream by moving the Ottoman capital to Bursa rewarding the Byzantine commander for surrendering the city to him by giving him and his sons key positions in the ottoman army to serve him. This was a common practice also seen when Osman Gazi gave the former Byzantine governor Kosemihal major positions in the Ottoman administration after he surrendered his City to Osman Gazi. The new capital Bursa was transformed by many building projects paid by Aladeen Pasha which saw many mercantile establishments bazaars open in the city which turned the city into a major trade centre in the region.The transformation of Bursa indicates a turning point for Ottoman Turks which sees them go from the nomadic hurts people into a settled urban society.


By the year 1328 the Byzantine civil war concluded with the overthrowing of Emperor Andronikos II along with the serbian allies by his grandson Andronikos III who was backed up by the Bulgarians. Also by that time Orhan had started the siege of Nicaea was the second biggest city in the Byzantine Empire only second to their capital of Constantinople. Andronikos III decided to relieve the important besieged city of Nicaea and hope to restore the Byzantine frontier to a stable position. Andronikos III led an army of about four thousand men which was greatest he could muster at the time to the besieged city. An 8,000 strong Ottoman army led by Orhan Ghazi would strike this Byzantine force floors during the Battle of Pelekanon. The battle would be a Ottoman victory which would see Andronikos III being wounded during battle, this would be the last time the Byzantine’s would attempt to try to regain land in Anatolia the huge city of Nicaea would fall to the ottomans by 1331 and in 1333 Orhan and his son Suleyman Pasha would start the siege in Nicomedia which would fall in 1337.


While Orhan Gazi and his armies where military campaigning against the Byzantines Aladeen Pasha was administrating the Empire at the capital of Bursa. He introduced the monetary system into the state which would see the first coining of ottoman coins under the name of Orhan. Aladeen would also reorganized the Ottoman army into a standing army. Aledeen Pasha formed the new army by forming cores the paid infantry which was to be kept in constant readiness for military service these troops were called the Yaya infantry. This army was highly organized unlike their previous Ghazi Army’s. Aladeen Pasha’s clothing reforms were also very important to the multi-ethnic Beylic, different attires were chosen for different ethnicities which made it easier to identify people’s backgrounds. The Ottoman Beylic was a diverse state which saw many Greeks Turks Armenians and Jews live together. This reform was not to single a community but to give ethnic groups identity in which the state could easily interact with those people. The people that lived under the Ottoman Beylic had a close relationship to their central government unlike many feudal kingdoms.


Aladeen Pasha’s reforms ensured the legitimacy of the new Ottoman government on the lands inwhich that ruled and that would survive from outside threats while at the same time making it easier to conquer more land and interact with the conquered people.


Aladeen Pasha the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman state will pass away in Bursa in 1331 leaving behind stable government for his warrior stepbrother Orhan Ghazi to manage.


By 1345 the Karasids Beylic to the west was in turmoil Yashi Han the leader of the Karasa Balak had died and his two sons would start a civil war in order to become the next Bey. Orhan Gazi saw an opportunity to gain further power in the region by participating in civil war, this pretext for war was that he was trying to establish peace in the Karasids Beylic. By the end of the year one of the brothers in a rebellion were killed in battle and the other one was captured by Orhan Gazi. The rich Beylic of Karasids and its huge Navy was taken over by the Ottoman Beylic. The Ottomans were eyeing the shores of Europe across the Dardanelles straits planning their next move.


Anatolia at 1300s

Anatolia at 1300s


After the battle Pelican in 1329 the ottomans and the Byzantines entered a period of threatening contact due to both sides not wanting to continue their three-decade war with each other.


The Byzantine state was crumbling at a very fast rate and they were also defeated by the Bulgarians to the Battle of Rooster Castro and 1332 which almost kicked out the Byzantines from the region of Thrace. Things went worse in 1341 when Andronikos iii died this would start another round of civil wars for the Byzantines. Andronikos son John  V was only nine years old when his father died, so Andronikos Chief Minister John VI vied for power left by the power vacuum after the death of Andronikos and became the new emperor. John VI would win the Civil War and become the senior Emperor in Regent for ten years for the junior emperor John v until he was old enough to rule by himself Serbian and Bulgaria took big chunks of land from Byzantines during the Civil War. The Byzantines desperately needed a new ally to protect them from Serbia and Bulgaria so John the IV turned to Orhan Ghazi for help.


John VI would ally himself with Orhan Gazi by planning a royal marriage between his daughter Theodora and Orhan to declare their friendship to one another. In 1346 Orhan Gazi would marry Theodora in Constantinople in the following year the couple would have a sudden name Shahzade Halil. This alliance however failed to prevent the Byzantines from further decline, this was evident during the Byzantine Genoese war of 1348 to 1349 where the Byzantines failed to prevent Genoa from occupying the Golden Horn right next to Constantinople due to tariff disputes. To show off their presence in Constantinople the Genoese built the Galata Tower which became the tallest building in the city. The ottomans wouldn’t join this war with the Byzantines due to the Byzantines allying themselves with Venice. The Venetians and the Ottomans were hostile to one another due to Orhan’s raiding parties against relationships and Dardanelles this meant that Orhan would not participate during this war. After years of unrest and John VI losing his popularity with the people and the government the Byzantines were yet again in a civil war. In 352 John the V he was twenty years old by this time had revolted against John VI to become the sole ruler of the Empire which he inherited from his father. Seeing a way to gain further influence with the young Emperor and gain even more land Serbia Genoa and even Venice sided with John the fifth.


Hearing about John the V’s revolt against him John the VI made his son Matthew Emperor and requested help from Orhan Gazi. Orhan Gazi also seen an opportunity to gain land in Europe decided to help his father-in-law John VI and sent over ten thousand of his best warriors over the Bosporus to stop John V revolt. The battle of DemoTika saw the joint forces of Orhan Ghazi and John VI wipe out the forces of John V and his Serbian allies, this battle would be the first battled the Ottomans would fight on European soil and resulted in a victory for Orhan Ghazi. It was at this point Orhan Gazi was becoming a popular figure among Turkish Beylics back in Anatolia.


Hearing about John the V’s revolt against him John the VI made his son Matthew Emperor and requested help from Orhan Gazi. Orhan Gazi also seen an opportunity to gain land in Europe decided to help his father-in-law John VI and sent over ten thousand of his best warriors over the Bosporus to stop John V revolt. The battle of DemoTika saw the joint forces of Orhan Ghazi and John VI wipe out the forces of John V and his Serbian allies, this battle would be the first battled the Ottomans would fight on European soil and resulted in a victory for Orhan Ghazi. It was at this point Orhan Gazi was becoming a popular figure among Turkish Beylics back in Anatolia.


Orhan at the age of 80 retired from public life and made his second eldest son Murad run the government. Orhan would die from natural causes in Bursa and 1362 after 36 years of ruling the Ottoman Beylic it was the first time during Orhan’s spring that the administration military and legislation of the Empire were structured. Osman Gazi had transformed his small Kayi tribe to great principality in Anatolia while his son Orhan Ghazi began the process of turning the principality into a state.

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Osmanli Devleti





Before going to sleep, Osman performed Salat and offered the following Dua (prayer) to Allah, before retiring for the night:


Oh, my Rabb!


If my efforts can cause the birth of righteousness, enlighten my night and my day!


May the glow of Dîn-i mübin-i İslâm (the True Religion of Islam) be clearly granted to always stand up for the Right.


May all the enemies of the faith perish alive under the ground! May the armies of unbelievers be ravaged by my strength!


May my sword be a shining beacon on the way of religion, and a guide to those who fight on the path of the Truth.


May I be granted to carry a clean, an unblemished name and to be victorious.
Grant me such an end that I may be able to reach Your Divine Grace.


Oh, my Almighty Lord, the Most Benevolent, the Most Generous.


Guide me so that I may attain your approval!


May the word of our Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (SAW) be my guide.


Bestow upon me the blessings and pleasure of the Holy Struggle.




Written By: Murat Mert


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Osmanli Devleti





The first encounters can be traced back to the early sixteenth century when the Portuguese dominated maritime trade across the Indian Ocean. The Portuguese naval power threatened not only the spice trade between the Sultanate of Aceh (located in modern-day Sumatra) and the rest of the world, but also the safety of the pilgrimage routes of Acehnese Muslims on their way to Mecca. In 1538, the Sultan of Aceh, Alauddin Riayat, approached the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, who also held the title of caliph, asking for help against the Portuguese threat. He received not only weapons and ammunition from the caliph, but also military instructors, housing and construction specialists, and other experts. It was the beginning of a long period of military cooperation between the Ottoman Empire and the sultanate. Closer diplomatic relations soon followed, culminating in the first exchange of ambassadors in 1547.


After the sixteenth century, relations between the Ottoman Empire and Aceh entered a period of stagnation, mainly due to the fact that the Ottoman Empire was weakening and naval expeditions were less justifiable. With the loss of Ottoman influence in Yemen in the mid-seventeenth century and the consequent closure of ports, the sultan’s armada left the waters of the Indian Ocean for good. However, Turkish influence in Sumatra and to some extent the other islands of the archipelago remained intact. The Sultanate of Aceh became a regional power thanks to the military it built on the Turkish model.


The nineteenth century in Southeast Asia was marked by the colonialist ventures of Western powers, led by Britain and the Netherlands. Several sultanates such as Aceh and Riau saw Ottoman protection as a better alternative to dominion by a Christian power.


The first Ottoman diplomatic mission in Southeast Asia was in 1864 in Singapore, and another Ottoman consulate opened in Batavia (modern-day Jakarta) in 1883. These missions were part of Ottoman efforts to promote an Islamic union. While the Dutch administration did not initially object to the opening of the Batavia office, they became increasingly concerned about its activities and took measures to limit Ottoman influence on the Muslim population. To a great extent, they succeeded. When the Ottoman sultan proclaimed a “holy war” at the onset of the First World War and called on Muslims to join the fight, the Dutch ambassador in Istanbul protested by claiming that the Netherlands remained neutral and therefore the holy war must not require the mobilization of Indonesian Muslims. The government of the Ottoman Empire responded by revising the text of the holy war proclamation to exclude Indonesian Muslims.


Written By: Murat Mert


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Osmanli Devleti






His Memory


AbdulHamid Han II would never forget something he saw or heard even if only once. His retentive memory would give everyone a shock.
The Sultan was dethroned and taken to Salonica by the rebels.

When he was on probation, one of the guardian officers drew his attention. His name was Cevher Agha and said:
‘’I know this man. I never forget people after meeting them. I’m sure it’s him. When I was hosting the Emperor (of Germany) at the Talimhane Kiosk, I showed my guests how I drilled my young soldiers. This man was a young boy then. The way he used his sword was remarkable. The Emperor and I liked it a lot. Thus, I gave him a gold medal with my own hands. His name is Hakki Efendi. Ask him if you can find a way to talk to him, I want to know what he is going to say.’’

Cevher Agha found a way and told Lieutenant Hakki Efendi about it. Hakki Efendi was surprised, and said:

‘’Yes, it’s me. How come he still remembers me? I was very young at that time. Now I am forty. I have grey hair, years passed by. I am actually stunned by his memory… But please, don’t mention about this to anyone.’’


Fifty Years Ago


During the last years of 19th century, he asks to an Ambassador:
‘’Excellency, you seem familiar! Have we met before?’’
‘’I don’t think we have, Your Majesty. I haven’t visited your lands for half a century.’’
‘’So you were here fifty years ago!…’’
‘’Yes, Your Majesty. During the reign of your dear father Abdulmecid Han, my father was the first clerk of the embassy. When he accepted the council of the embassy to his room, I was there, next to my father. But I was nine years old.’’
‘’Alright! I was around 10, and I was watching the council behind the trellis! So that’s where I saw you!’’
Remembering the 9 year old child after fifty years shocked the Ambassador.


Streets of Paris


Let’s hear it from a European author:

‘’He perfectly fulfilled his duty in Paris with his intelligence and knowledge. It was obvious for everyone that this man who is very talented in hiding his emotions (when he was 17-18 years old) was interested in everything and making research about them in detail.
Despite the 30 years that passed by, AbdulHamid II remembered the streets of Paris that he saw before, and the names of the officers who he was introduced to.’’

Translated from ”Dahi Hukumdar Sultan II. AbdulHamid Han” book.

Dahi Hukumdar Sultan II. AbdulHamid Han

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Osmanli Devleti





The Ottoman Empire did not ever abuse other societies; especially it helped religious communities, such as Christians, to protect their culture and religion. Hence, the Ottoman Empire was not only a political organization but also home to a unique culture, civilization and identity. Communities in the Ottoman society were formed based on religious affiliation, not based on racial differences.


In order to understand social dynamics in the Ottoman society, it is vital to examine the practice of freedom of religion and conscience which is one of the most basic principle of modern constitutions.


The presence of such freedoms kept non-Muslim communities loyal to the Ottoman administration for a very long time, and had been effective in the protection of a national identity.


The Ottomans followed a good policy, of which religious emotions and humanity are two of the most important pillars towards non-Muslim nations. If this was not the case, the Ottoman Empire could have assimilated these non-Muslim societies, because it had political and military authority over them for a long time. This policy was not a sign of neglect, but was a direct culmination of the social mentality of the Turkish state.


The Ottoman Empire had been a multinational, multi-religious, and multicultural society beginning from its inception till its fall. In the Ottoman realm, each nation was autonomous in religious, cultural, judicial, and economic affairs.


Written By: Murat Mert


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