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HISTORY

SULTAN ABDULHAMID TAKES THE THRONE

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SULTAN ABDULHAMID TAKES THE THRONE

 

Murat V had taken the throne when Sultan AbdulAziz was deposed and murdered. He abdicated because of mental issues. And the servants of the British government put AbdulHamid II on the throne, since he had promised to bring about the constitutional monarchy. AbdulHamid declared a constitutional monarchy as soon as he took the throne. If he didn’t, they would depose him just as they did AbdulAziz. AbdulHamid had paid close attention to what happened to him, and he had formed a delicate strategy.

 

AbdulHamid II moved to Yildiz Palace from Dolmabace Palace in 1877. That was the greatest strategic move AbdulHamid made. Those who don’t know why, also don’t know how AbdulHamid postponed the destruction of a state that was already crumbling by 30 years, friend.

 

Yildiz Palace

 

Yildiz Palace was a vacation and hunting spot for the previous Padishahs. There was a mansion. AbdulHamid ordered a great renovation of Yildiz Palace. He moved to Yildiz Palace from Dolmabahçe.

 

Dolmabahçe Palace was in the control of foreign powers. Padishahs were not in control. They didn’t even have safety. They were easily deposed and murdered. AbdulHamid had witnessed the plots and intrigue that surrounded his uncle AbdulAziz.

 

In Dolmabahce, foreign powers received intelligence reports before the Padishah. This weakened the government greatly, and took power from the Padishah.

 

‘Bureaucracy’ ruled in Dolmabahce. And bureaucracy worked for the foreign powers. Treacherous bureaucrats hiding inside the government weakened the Padishah and the government as a whole.

 

AbdulHamid knew that if this went on, the government would be destroyed very soon. That’s why he had to start the government from scratch in the new palace. He wanted an an administration independent from foreign powers.

 

That’s why when he relocated the throne to the Yildiz Palace, he would start a new intelligence network and manage it personally.

 

 

He cut away the bureacratic system that weakened the government, and relocated the governance to Yildiz Palace. This ensured that he could finalize national projects with swiftness and ease. The masters of the treacherous bureacracy were furious. They were mad with rage, my friend.

 

AbdulHamid formed a formidable security force in Yildiz Palace. This made it much harder to attack the Sultan. He ordered the construction of a theatre, a museum, a library, a pharmacy, a hamam, a repair shop, a carpentry workshop, a smithy, anda lock workshop in Yildiz Palace.

 

AbdulHamid rarely left Yildiz Palace. But he disrupted the plans of foreign powers from within Yildiz Palace, especially the British. This was strategy of “existing without being seen.” He had decided on this strategy because of the hardships he faced during the Ottoman Reform period in his youth, the troubles that occured during the time when he took the throne, the brutal murder of his uncle AbdulAziz, the assassination attempts on his life, and the coup attempts. AbdulHamid II’s Yildiz Palace strategy was legendary.

 

It’s very much alike what’s happening right now.

 

The Prime Minister’s of Turkey would administer the country from Cankaya Palace. This was a place with compromised security, in the hands of foreign powers. Prime Ministers would easily be poisoned and killed. They were also bugged and blackmailed. Erdogan relocated from Cankaya Palace to the multi-functional and secure Külliye that was built in Ankara. He did something similar to what AbdulHamid did. InshaAllah, that’s what he did, friend.

 

In the meantime, Sultan AbdulHamid’s famous Yildiz Palace was turned into a casino in the first years of the republic, in 1926, did you know that? Yes, they did that!

 

Anyway, let’s not speak of past wounds, and keep going. Imperialist powers planned to send highly trained agents to Ottoman lands to weaken AbdulHamid. Read carefully so that you can better understand what’s going on today. Now, we’ll tell you about the plots they orchestrated.

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HISTORY

ORHAN GAZI AND HIS RELATION WITH EUROPE

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The year is 1326 and Osman Gazi has died from natural causes during the siege of Bursa shortly after Osman’s that the city of Bursa was taken by his oldest son Orhan Ghazi. Orhan Ghazi and his stepbrother Aladeen Pasha would talk about the line of succession to the Beylic that they both inherited. The Step Brothers came to conclusion that Ottoman Beylic shouldn’t be split between them Aladeen relines that Orhan was natural born warrior whereas he was more of a man of learning and education didn’t fit the mould of a military commander. He wanted to continue to administrate the Beylic while his more charismatic brother Orhan went on military campaigns so Orhan Gazi became the new Sultan rewarding his stepbrother’s loyalty to him and to the state he made a Aledeen Pasha the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, an office which would be occupied by various men until 1922.

 

Aledeen Pasha

Aledeen Pasha

 

Orhan Ghazi would start his dream by moving the Ottoman capital to Bursa rewarding the Byzantine commander for surrendering the city to him by giving him and his sons key positions in the ottoman army to serve him. This was a common practice also seen when Osman Gazi gave the former Byzantine governor Kosemihal major positions in the Ottoman administration after he surrendered his City to Osman Gazi. The new capital Bursa was transformed by many building projects paid by Aladeen Pasha which saw many mercantile establishments bazaars open in the city which turned the city into a major trade centre in the region.The transformation of Bursa indicates a turning point for Ottoman Turks which sees them go from the nomadic hurts people into a settled urban society.

 

By the year 1328 the Byzantine civil war concluded with the overthrowing of Emperor Andronikos II along with the serbian allies by his grandson Andronikos III who was backed up by the Bulgarians. Also by that time Orhan had started the siege of Nicaea was the second biggest city in the Byzantine Empire only second to their capital of Constantinople. Andronikos III decided to relieve the important besieged city of Nicaea and hope to restore the Byzantine frontier to a stable position. Andronikos III led an army of about four thousand men which was greatest he could muster at the time to the besieged city. An 8,000 strong Ottoman army led by Orhan Ghazi would strike this Byzantine force floors during the Battle of Pelekanon. The battle would be a Ottoman victory which would see Andronikos III being wounded during battle, this would be the last time the Byzantine’s would attempt to try to regain land in Anatolia the huge city of Nicaea would fall to the ottomans by 1331 and in 1333 Orhan and his son Suleyman Pasha would start the siege in Nicomedia which would fall in 1337.

 

While Orhan Gazi and his armies where military campaigning against the Byzantines Aladeen Pasha was administrating the Empire at the capital of Bursa. He introduced the monetary system into the state which would see the first coining of ottoman coins under the name of Orhan. Aladeen would also reorganized the Ottoman army into a standing army. Aledeen Pasha formed the new army by forming cores the paid infantry which was to be kept in constant readiness for military service these troops were called the Yaya infantry. This army was highly organized unlike their previous Ghazi Army’s. Aladeen Pasha’s clothing reforms were also very important to the multi-ethnic Beylic, different attires were chosen for different ethnicities which made it easier to identify people’s backgrounds. The Ottoman Beylic was a diverse state which saw many Greeks Turks Armenians and Jews live together. This reform was not to single a community but to give ethnic groups identity in which the state could easily interact with those people. The people that lived under the Ottoman Beylic had a close relationship to their central government unlike many feudal kingdoms.

 

Aladeen Pasha’s reforms ensured the legitimacy of the new Ottoman government on the lands inwhich that ruled and that would survive from outside threats while at the same time making it easier to conquer more land and interact with the conquered people.

 

Aladeen Pasha the first Grand Vizier of the Ottoman state will pass away in Bursa in 1331 leaving behind stable government for his warrior stepbrother Orhan Ghazi to manage.

 

By 1345 the Karasids Beylic to the west was in turmoil Yashi Han the leader of the Karasa Balak had died and his two sons would start a civil war in order to become the next Bey. Orhan Gazi saw an opportunity to gain further power in the region by participating in civil war, this pretext for war was that he was trying to establish peace in the Karasids Beylic. By the end of the year one of the brothers in a rebellion were killed in battle and the other one was captured by Orhan Gazi. The rich Beylic of Karasids and its huge Navy was taken over by the Ottoman Beylic. The Ottomans were eyeing the shores of Europe across the Dardanelles straits planning their next move.

 

Anatolia at 1300s

Anatolia at 1300s

 

After the battle Pelican in 1329 the ottomans and the Byzantines entered a period of threatening contact due to both sides not wanting to continue their three-decade war with each other.

 

The Byzantine state was crumbling at a very fast rate and they were also defeated by the Bulgarians to the Battle of Rooster Castro and 1332 which almost kicked out the Byzantines from the region of Thrace. Things went worse in 1341 when Andronikos iii died this would start another round of civil wars for the Byzantines. Andronikos son John  V was only nine years old when his father died, so Andronikos Chief Minister John VI vied for power left by the power vacuum after the death of Andronikos and became the new emperor. John VI would win the Civil War and become the senior Emperor in Regent for ten years for the junior emperor John v until he was old enough to rule by himself Serbian and Bulgaria took big chunks of land from Byzantines during the Civil War. The Byzantines desperately needed a new ally to protect them from Serbia and Bulgaria so John the IV turned to Orhan Ghazi for help.

 

John VI would ally himself with Orhan Gazi by planning a royal marriage between his daughter Theodora and Orhan to declare their friendship to one another. In 1346 Orhan Gazi would marry Theodora in Constantinople in the following year the couple would have a sudden name Shahzade Halil. This alliance however failed to prevent the Byzantines from further decline, this was evident during the Byzantine Genoese war of 1348 to 1349 where the Byzantines failed to prevent Genoa from occupying the Golden Horn right next to Constantinople due to tariff disputes. To show off their presence in Constantinople the Genoese built the Galata Tower which became the tallest building in the city. The ottomans wouldn’t join this war with the Byzantines due to the Byzantines allying themselves with Venice. The Venetians and the Ottomans were hostile to one another due to Orhan’s raiding parties against relationships and Dardanelles this meant that Orhan would not participate during this war. After years of unrest and John VI losing his popularity with the people and the government the Byzantines were yet again in a civil war. In 352 John the V he was twenty years old by this time had revolted against John VI to become the sole ruler of the Empire which he inherited from his father. Seeing a way to gain further influence with the young Emperor and gain even more land Serbia Genoa and even Venice sided with John the fifth.

 

Hearing about John the V’s revolt against him John the VI made his son Matthew Emperor and requested help from Orhan Gazi. Orhan Gazi also seen an opportunity to gain land in Europe decided to help his father-in-law John VI and sent over ten thousand of his best warriors over the Bosporus to stop John V revolt. The battle of DemoTika saw the joint forces of Orhan Ghazi and John VI wipe out the forces of John V and his Serbian allies, this battle would be the first battled the Ottomans would fight on European soil and resulted in a victory for Orhan Ghazi. It was at this point Orhan Gazi was becoming a popular figure among Turkish Beylics back in Anatolia.

 

Hearing about John the V’s revolt against him John the VI made his son Matthew Emperor and requested help from Orhan Gazi. Orhan Gazi also seen an opportunity to gain land in Europe decided to help his father-in-law John VI and sent over ten thousand of his best warriors over the Bosporus to stop John V revolt. The battle of DemoTika saw the joint forces of Orhan Ghazi and John VI wipe out the forces of John V and his Serbian allies, this battle would be the first battled the Ottomans would fight on European soil and resulted in a victory for Orhan Ghazi. It was at this point Orhan Gazi was becoming a popular figure among Turkish Beylics back in Anatolia.

 

Orhan at the age of 80 retired from public life and made his second eldest son Murad run the government. Orhan would die from natural causes in Bursa and 1362 after 36 years of ruling the Ottoman Beylic it was the first time during Orhan’s spring that the administration military and legislation of the Empire were structured. Osman Gazi had transformed his small Kayi tribe to great principality in Anatolia while his son Orhan Ghazi began the process of turning the principality into a state.

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Places

THE LARGEST MOSQUE IN EUROPE

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The central mosque in Cologne. Nine years in the making, the mosque’s 4,500 square meters can accommodate between 2,000 and 4,000 believers.

 

In all, some 35 million euros were spent on its construction by a Turkish Muslim association.
The new building complex fascinates with the interplay of concrete, glass and wood and is characterized by a 36.5 m high transparent dome, which is framed by two filigree, 55 m high minarets. The interplay of curved concrete shells and generous glass fronts gives the building its modern and inviting character and impresses with its extraordinary sense of space.



 

In terms of design and choice of materials, the entire building complex and the domed hall is a development from traditional building culture to modern. The building opens up to all visitors through the generous outside stairs, creating the feeling that the public space extends into the building complex via the inviting stairs. In this way, fears of thresholds and contact are reduced and the inviting character of the building and the community equally emphasized.

 

In the classification, the building opens up to the visitor under many aspects and offers various approaches. In this way, the visitor can take and direct each of his steps in accordance with his or her individual expectations, speed and curiosity. Different building elements invite visitors to different occasions, which the mosque visitor can consciously do without having the feeling of being confronted with something strange or unexpected.

 

The building lowers inhibition thresholds in its design language and communication and at the same time increases curiosity and fascination. So there is already the possibility in the entrance area to first sniff the “atmosphere”, to approach the whole thing step by step and to open up, in the process, carried by a maelstrom of curiosity and expectation, to open up the whole for yourself.

 

The new mosque thus creates new perspectives and opportunities to meet the supposedly foreign and at the same time fascinatingly familiar.



 

With the new building, an attractive, contemporary and functional community center has been created, as well as a dignified, representative church. With a mosque that is visible and inviting, there is a conscious positioning in the living environment – also in the architectural sense. Because “integration through building culture” in an urban environment offers, in addition to being and becoming visible, points of identification for all Muslims in a process of becoming part, far beyond Cologne.

 

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan opens the mosque in German city of Cologne.
He said: “The mosque in Cologne stood as a symbol of peace and thanked the German government for pressing ahead with its construction despite protests.”

 
 
 

Written By: Murat Mert

 
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Places

OLD TOWN OF ANTALYA

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The old town of Antalya, as known in Turkish as “kaleici”, is in a beautiful location with all the history it carries. One of the amazing touristic locations of Turkey today, Antalya hosted many civilisations through history. Many settlements were founded here, starting with the Hellenistic period, including the visit of the Roman Empire.



 

The Old Town is the heart of Antalya; it is so interesting for both history enthusiasts and cultural visitors. Hadrianus Door, Yivli Minare, Kesik Minare, Mevlevihane, many museums, old houses and narrow streets take you to an adventurous tour into history. The Old Town of Antalya is one of the oldest settlement locations of Anatolia. Therefore, visitors have the opportunity to see the rural area from many different eras and civilisations. The most exciting part of the old town is its old houses and narrow streets which still carry the historical touches of Rum, Seljuk and Ottoman architecture.

 

The history of the old town goes back 500 thousand years with the discovery of the Karain Cave 30 kilometres south of the old town. Although the archaeological findings show that people were living in the area at then, the settlement of the place as we know it today started 2500 years ago.

 

Throughout history, the old town was affected by fires, floods and the effects of time. Nevertheless, it still protects its majestic view. The reason why a settlement was founded and used by many civilisations is its archaeological structure. Throughout history, trading gained more importance in the harbour area. Each new owner of the place rebuilt it with different characteristics. The old town became a unique location where you can see touches of many civilisations in the same place.



 

In the 1980`s Antalya, the old town and the harbour area became one of the most important tourist attractions of Turkey. From that day until this, its beauty is preserved and restored so that it can be visited by generations to come.

 
 
 

Written By: Murat Mert

 
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